This refers to encryption or verification using retina, fingerprint, voice or iris. It is one of the emerging ways of providing digital security. The recognition of persons by using their biometric signatures is becoming more and more important due to its applications for security use. There are various biometric modalities available. Common ones include fingerprints, face images, palm prints, iris images, voice, gait patterns, and many others. Iris images represent one of the most secure forms of recognition, and they offer incredible recognition rates in conditions where the photos are of high quality such that the iris can be captured efficiently. However, there could be problems with this form of recognition in many situations where there are less than ideal image recognition conditions.
The goal of the biometric signature system is to produce a signal or image that characterises the features of the person as a way to control access. An automatic biometric system has three main components that allow it to identify the person. The major components include;
Authorised users on the biometric system will need to enrol on it by presenting the particular feature required for inclusion in the digital library where it can be retrieved in future. The biometric signal or image can be stored as a signature or template which is then used to represent the original biometric image. The structure of the regular biometric system contains various features which include:
Sensor: This can come in various forms, and it is the feature that allows access to the biometric characteristic. The sensor can include ultrasonic pads or capacitance for fingerprints, camera for iris or facial recognition, infrared detector for the veins in the palm, and microphone to capture voice recognition.
Feature extractor: This is the tool that extracts the biometric features needed from the sensor. Such a signature sensor must be sufficient as to constitute a unique feature for the individual.
Stored Templates: For a person to get authorisation into a biometric system, they must be registered on that system. That registration usually comes in the form of the biometric feature being recorded three times, and these outputs are combined to form what qualifies as a library template that will be used for comparison.
Matcher: This compares the current biometric signature with the library template using a matching algorithm that determines if they will match.
Application Device: Once the matcher has declared a positive match, the application device will open and will start operating. Such devices might serve any function including cash dispensing, access to computers, validating passports, opening a door, etc.